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Angular velocity in steady-state drifting and autodrifting

Discussion in 'Articles' started by Mister Wu, Dec 8, 2015.

  1. Mister Wu

    Mister Wu

    • MKBoards Supporter
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    ANGULAR VELOCITY IN STEADY-STATE DRIFTING AND AUTODRIFTING

    Mister Wu[1]



    [1]Passons, Italy

    ABSTRACT

    The factor affecting angular velocity in steady-state drifting and autodrifting were investigated, showing that the main factor affecting it in this test is indeed Land Handling, as expected, but revealing an important disadvantage of inward drifting bikes with regard to angular velocity in steady-state drifting. An investigation done in the 200cc engine class also revealed some important changes with regard to autodrifting. Finally, the Wii Remote D-Pad was shown not to affect angular velocity in a positive way, while the effect of coins is corrected in the 200cc engine class, revealing possible corrections in the game's physics.

    INTRODUCTION

    Angular velocity can be considered in colloquial terms as how fast the direction the vehicle is pointing toward changes while steering, autodrifting or drifting. It is one of the factors that determines the radius of curvature, whose minimization is important to take tighter turns.
    The steady-state is the state where the angular velocity doesn't change over time and is reached, in the case of drifting, after the Super Mini-Turbo is charged and full speed is attained and is denoted by the trails of the wheels forming complete circles, while in the case of autodrifting the steady state is likely reached soon after autodrifting starts, when full speed is attained, and has no particular sign denoting it.
    In this study there is an attempt at determining the main factors affecting angular velocity, measuring the actual time, in frames, needed to complete a full circle during steady-state drifting or autodrifting fully in one direction.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS

    MARIO KART 8 VERSION

    Mario Kart version 4.1 was used.

    RECORDING DEVICE

    An Elgato Game Capture HD was used to record 720p footage from a Wii U set to output a 720p signal over HDMI. From the footage recorded mp4 files were created and analyzed with Quicktime 7 Pro for Windows.

    CONTROLLERS USED

    The first player used a Wii U GamePad in normal (non-gyroscopic) mode. In the case of the evaluation of the effect of the Wii Remote D-Pad and for the evaluation of the effect of coins while drifting in the 150cc engine class, a Wii Remote in normal mode was used.
    The second player used a Wii Remote.

    COMBINATIONS TESTED

    The following combinations were used for the tests:

    outward drifting bike: Ludwig + Standard Bike + Standard tires + Bowser Kite
    ATV: Ludwig + Wild Wiggler + Standard Tires+ Bowser Kite
    Kart: Ludwig + Pipe Frame + Standard Tires + Bowser Kite
    Low Handling inward drifting bike: Morton + Master Cycle + Monster Tires + Super Glider
    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: Morton + Standard ATV + Monster Tires + Super Glider
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: Roy + Master Cycle + Standard Tires + Super Glider
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: Ludwig + P-Wing + Standard Tires + Super Glider
    High Handling inward drifting bike (drifting): Lemmy + Sport Bike + Slim Tires + Bowser Kite
    High Handling inward drifting bike (autodrifting): Lemmy + Sport Bike + Leaf Tires + Bowser Kite
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: Lemmy + Landship + Button Tires + Bowser Kite
    Low Traction inward drifting bike (drifting in 150cc only): Morton + Sport Bike + Slim Tires + Super Glider
    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: Roy + Pipe Frame + Slick Tires + Super Glider
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: Larry + Tanooki Buggy + Hot Monster Tires + Super Glider
    inward drifting bike (coins' test): Ludwig + Sport Bike + Slim Tires + Super Glider

    the second player always used the following combination:

    Iggy + Pipe Frame + Cyber Slick Tires + Bowser Kite

    TRACK TESTED

    The track used for the test was GCN Sherbet Land.

    METHOD

    In the case of 150cc engine class, a Time Trial without ghost as started, in the case of 200cc, a 2 player VS race using only coins as items and without CPU players was started. In both case the second ice section was reached and from there, drifting were started holding the Acceleration button, the Jump button and the left or right button of the D-Pad, while autodrifting was started holding the Acceleration button and the right or left button of the D-Pad. When steady state was reached, at least four full circles were performed.
    In the subsequent analysis, circles in which softdrifting or softautodrifting were performed were discarded.
    To measure how many frames were needed to complete a circle, the following reference point were considered:

    when going left, the third block forming the highest ice arc:
    leftref.JPG
    The third block of the highest arc can be seen on the left of this image.

    when going right, the first big step of the ice tower near the glider pad:
    rightref.JPG
    The first step of the ice tower can be seen on the right of this image.


    The results are reported in the format right; left.

    150cc

    DRIFTING

    outward drifting bike: 253 frames, 252 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames; 253 frames, 252 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames
    outward drifting bike (Wii Remote): 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames; 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames
    outward drifting bike (Wii Remote + 10 coins): 253 frames, 254 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames; 254 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames
    ATV: 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames; 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames
    Kart: 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 252 frames; 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames
    Low Handling inward drifting bike: 295 frames, 294 frames, 295 frames, 294 frames; 294 frames, 295 frames, 294 frames, 295 frames
    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: 276 frames, 277 frames, 276 frames, 277 frames; 277 frames, 276 frames, 277 frames, 276 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 279 frames, 279 frames, 279 frames, 279 frames; 279 frames, 279 frames, 279 frames, 279 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 255 frames, 255 frames, 254 frames, 255 frames; 255 frames, 255 frames, 255 frames, 255 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike: 263 frames, 263 frames, 263 frames, 262 frames; 263 frames, 263 frames, 263 frames, 263 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 246 frames, 245 frames, 245 frames, 245 frames; 245 frames, 246 frames, 245 frames, 245 frames
    Low Traction inward drifting bike: 279 frames, 279 frames, 279 frames, 278 frames; 279 frames, 278 frames, 279 frames, 279 frames
    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 255 frames, 254 frames, 255 frames, 255 frames; 255 frames, 254 frames, 255 frames, 255 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 256 frames, 255 frames, 256 frames, 256 frames; 256 frames, 256 frames, 255 frames, 256 frames

    AUTODRIFTING

    outward drifting bike: 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames; 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames
    outward drifting bike (Wii Remote): 370 frames, 370 frames, 370 frames, 371 frames; 371 frames, 370 frames, 370 frames, 370 frames
    ATV: 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames; 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames
    Kart: 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames; 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames
    Low Handling inward drifting bike: 271 frames, 271 frames, 271 frames, 271 frames; 271 frames, 271 frames, 271 frames, 271 frames
    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: 285 frames, 285 frames, 285 frames, 285 frames; 285 frames, 285 frames, 284 frames, 285 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 256 frames, 256 frames, 256 frames, 256 frames; 256 frames, 256 frames, 256 frames, 256 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames; 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike: 237 frames, 236 frames, 237 frames, 236 frames; 237 frames, 236 frames, 237 frames, 236 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 237 frames, 236 frames, 237 frames, 237 frames; 236 frames, 237 frames, 236 frames, 237 frames
    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 253 frames, 253 frames, 254 frames, 253 frames; 253 frames, 254 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 253 frames, 253 frames, 252 frames, 253 frames; 252 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 252 frames

    coins comparisons:
    outward drifting bike (10 coins): 258 frames, 257 frames, 258 frames, 257 frames; 257 frames, 258 frames, 257 frames, 258 frames
    Kart: 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames; 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames
    Kart (10 coins): 258 frames, 257 frames, 257 frames, 258 frames; 257 frames, 257 frames, 258 frames, 257 frames
    ATV: 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames; 250 frames, 250 frames, 250 frames, 251 frames
    ATV (10 coins): 257 frames, 257 frames, 258 frames, 258 frames; 257 frames, 258 frames, 257 frames, 257 frames
    inward drifting bike: 245 frames, 246 frames, 245 frames, 246 frames; 245 frames, 246 frames, 245 frames, 245 frames
    inward drifting bike (10 coins): 252 frames, 251 frames, 252 frames, 252 frames; 251 frames, 252 frames, 252 frames, 251 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames; 253 frames, 253 frames, 253 frames, 252 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle (10 coins): 261 frames, 261 frames, 261 frames, 261 frames; 261 frames, 261 frames, 261 frames, 261 frames

    200cc

    DRIFTING

    Low Handling inward drifting bike: 295 frames, 296 frames, 296 frames, 296 frames; 295 frames, 296 frames, 297 frames, 295 frames
    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: 278 frames, 278 frames, 278 frames, 278 frames; 278 frames, 278 frames, 278 frames, 278 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 279 frames, 279 frames, 280 frames, 279 frames; 279 frames, 279 frames, 280 frames, 279 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 256 frames, 256 frames, 256 frames, 256 frames; 257 frames, 257 frames, 256 frames, 257 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike: 262 frames, 262 frames, 262 frames, 261 frames; 262 frames, 262 frames, 262 frames, 262 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 244 frames, 243 frames, 243 frames, 243 frames; 243 frames, 243 frames, 243 frames, 243 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle (10 coins): 243 frames, 243 frames, 243 frames, 243 frames; 244 frames, 244 frames, 243 frames, 243 frames
    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 256 frames, 255 frames, 257 frames, 255 frames; 257 frames, 255 frames, 256 frames, 255 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 258 frames, 256 frames, 257 frames, 257 frames; 257 frames, 256 frames, 257 frames, 256 frames

    AUTODRIFTING

    Low Handling inward drifting bike: 306 frames, 307 frames, 307 frames, 308 frames; 307 frames, 306 frames, 307 frames, 306 frames
    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: 339 frames, 340 frames, 340 frames, 339 frames; 340 frames, 340 frames, 339 frames, 340 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 274 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames; 273 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames, 274 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 273 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames; 273 frames, 274 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike: 242 frames, 242 frames, 242 frames, 241 frames; 242 frames, 242 frames, 241 frames, 242 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 244 frames, 243 frames, 244 frames, 243 frames; 243 frames, 244 frames, 244 frames, 243 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle (10 coins): 244 frames, 245 frames, 243 frames, 244 frames; 243 frames, 244 frames, 243 frames, 244 frames
    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 273 frames, 274 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames; 273 frames, 274 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 274 frames, 274 frames, 275 frames, 273 frames; 273 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames, 273 frames

    RESULTS

    It is easier to look at the summary of the results organized per topic covered.

    150cc

    DRIFTING

    First of all, all the outward drifting vehicles having the same parameters also have the same angular velocity:

    Outward drifting bike: 252.875 ± 0.354 frames
    Kart: 252.75 ± 0.463 frames
    ATV: 253 ± 0 frames

    When observing inward drifting bikes and outward drifting vehicles having the same Land Handling and Traction, however, a startling difference appears:

    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 279 ± 0 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 254.875 ± 0.354 frames

    The use of an inward drifting vehicle therefore negatively affects the angular velocity. On the other hand, Traction has a negligible effect on the angular velocity:

    Low Traction inward drifting bike: 278.75 ± 0.463 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 279 ± 0 frames

    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 254.75 ± 0.463 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 254.875 ± 0.354 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 255.75 ± 0.463 frames

    This difference is more likely a side effect, rather than a direct effect of the Traction parameter.
    As expected, Land Handling is the most influential parameter on angular velocity:

    Low Handling inward drifting bike: 294.5 ± 0.535 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 279 ± 0 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike: 262.875 ± 0.354 frames

    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: 276.5 ± 0.535 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 254.875 ± 0.354 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 245.25 ± 0.463 frames

    Surprisingly, the best angular velocity that inward drifting bikes can reach is less than the angular velocity of medium handling outward drifting vehicles.

    The test done with the Wii Remote and with coins showed surprising results:

    outward drifting bike: 252.875 ± 0.354 frames
    outward drifting bike (Wii Remote): 253 ± 0 frames
    outward drifting bike (Wii Remote + 10 coins): 253.25 ± 0.463 frames

    both the use of the Wii Remote and the coins didn't affect angular velocity. While the latter result is expected, as speed shouldn't influence angular velocity during steady-state drifting, the former results confrims that the advantages in the use of the Wii Remote[1] are not at the level of angular velocity.

    AUTODRIFTING

    Again, in the case of autodrifting all the three classes of outward drifting vehicles having the same parameters have the same angular velocity as well:

    Outward drifting bike: 250 ± 0 frames
    Kart: 250 ± 0 frames
    ATV: 250 ± 0 frames

    It must be noted here that the angular velocity while autodrifting is actually higher than the angular velocity while drifting, which is a surprising result.
    When observing the behavior of inward drifting bikes, the differences with respect to drifting become more apparent:

    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 256 ± 0 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 253 ± 0 frames

    Here the advantage of outward drifting vehicles is much more limited, while in all cases the angular velocity while autodrifting is higher than while drifting, and dramatically so in the case of inward drifting bikes.
    The effect of Traction, on the other hand, continues to be irrelevant:

    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 253.25 ± 0.463 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 253 ± 0 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 252.625 ± 0.518 frames

    Land Handling continues to be therefore the main factor affecting angular velocity:

    Low Handling inward drifting bike: 271 ± 0 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 256 ± 0 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike: 236.5 ± 0.535 frames

    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: 284.875 ± 0.354 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 253 ± 0 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 236.625 ± 0.518 frames

    It must be noted that, when Land Handling is maximized, the angular velocity of both inward and outward drifting vehicles is the same.

    When using the Wii Remote, it was actually impossible to autodrift fully in both direction, resulting in a low angular velocity:

    outward drifting bike: 250 ± 0 frames
    outward drifting bike (Wii Remote): 370.25 ± 0.463 frames

    It must be noted that with the same Wii Remote it was actually possible to drift fully in a direction, suggesting that this might be an intended behavior.

    Finally, the coins actually affected angular velocity in a negative way. For this purpose, several tests were performed:

    outward drifting bike: 250 ± 0 frames
    outward drifting bike (10 coins): 257.5 ± 0.535 frames
    Kart: 250 ± 0 frames
    Kart (10 coins): 257.375 ± 0.518 frames
    ATV: 250.125 ± 0.354 frames
    ATV (10 coins): 257.375 ± 0.518 frames
    inward drifting bike: 245.375 ± 0.518 frames
    inward drifting bike (10 coins): 251.625 ± 0.518 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 252.875 ± 0.354 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle (10 coins): 261 ± 0 frames

    200cc

    First of all, it was confirmed that Traction doesn't significantly affect angular velocity even in this class:

    DRIFTING

    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 255.75 ± 0.886 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 256.375 ± 0.518 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 256.75 ± 0.707 frames

    AUTODRIFTING

    Low Traction outward drifting vehicle: 273.25 ± 0.463 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 273.125 ± 0.354 frames
    High Traction outward drifting vehicle: 273.5 ± 0.756 frames

    The angular velocities while drifting were similar to the ones already observed in the 150cc class, with little differences probably due to the revised physics engine used in the 200cc class.

    DRIFTING

    Low Handling inward drifting bike: 295.75 ± 0.707 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike: 279.25 ± 0.463 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike: 261.875 ± 0.354 frames

    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle: 278 ± 0 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle: 256.375 ± 0.518 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 243.125 ± 0.354 frames

    On the other hand, autodrifting present radically different values of angular velocity that apparently depend only on the Land Handling parameter:

    AUTODRIFTING

    Low Handling outward drifting vehicle (1.0 Handling)
    : 339.625 ± 0.518 frames
    Low Handling inward drifting bike (2.0 Handling): 306.75 ± 0.707 frames
    Medium Handling inward drifting bike (3.25 Handling): 273.25 ± 0.463 frames
    Medium Handling outward drifting vehicle (3.25 Handling): 273.125 ± 0.354 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle (5.5 Handling): 243.5 ± 0.535 frames
    High Handling inward drifting bike (5.75 Handling): 241.75 ± 0.463 frames

    Finally, coins do not affect the angular velocity of drifting and autodrifting, suggesting that the effect of coins on autodrifting was a side effect that was subsequently corrected in the 200cc class.

    DRIFTING

    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 243.125 ± 0.354 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle (10 coins): 243.25 ± 0.463 frames

    AUTODRIFTING

    High Handling outward drifting vehicle: 243.5 ± 0.535 frames
    High Handling outward drifting vehicle (10 coins): 243.75 ± 0.707 frames

    CONCLUSIONS


    An evaluation of important factors affecting angular velocity was performed, revealing that the two most important factor affecting it in this test are Land Handling and the use of inward drifting bikes. It was also discovered that in 200cc class autodrifting mechanics appear to be completely revised, with different angular velocities, dependence on Land Handling but not drifting type and without any adverse side effect introduced by coins.

    COMPETING INERESTS

    The author declares no competing interests.

    CONTACTS

    MKBoards' user Mister Wu can be contacted for any clarification, suggestion or correction regarding the content of this article.

    REFERENCES

    [1]"Simple questions (and some small tests) about the D-Pad" thread of the "Mario Kart 8- General Discussion" section of MKBoards(http://mkboards.com/forums/threads/simple-questions-and-some-small-tests-about-the-d-pad.15413/)

    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION

    To better put the results obtained when drifting with inward drifting bikes into context, the drifitng angular velocity of two additional combinations was tested in the 200cc engine class (where Handling is more relevant):

    Pipe Frame: Morton + Pipe Frame + Slick Tires + Bowser Kite
    Streetle: Morton + Streetle + Slick Tires + Bowser Kite


    The results are reported in the format right; left.

    Pipe Frame: 261 frames, 260 frames, 261 frames, 262 frames; 261 frames, 260 frames, 260 frames, 261 frames
    Streetle: 266 frames, 266 frames, 266 frames, 265 frames; 265 frames, 266 frames, 265 frames, 265 frames

    The results are as follows:

    Pipe Frame: 260.75 ± 0.707 frames
    Streetle: 265.5 ± 0.535 frames

    It's important to note that the results obtained for the Pipe Frame combination aren't significantly different from the ones obtained with the high Handling inward drifting bike combination.
     
    Last edited: Dec 18, 2017
    Nicola and Rhodechill2 like this.
  2. Mister Wu

    Mister Wu

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    EDITS:
    1 - added the "Raw Data" and "References" section, put the "Raw Results" section in a spoiler to have an easier to read article, specified "Land Handling" instead of just "Handling" and other minor corrections. 9/12/2015
    2 - substituted the "revisited" term with "revised", which is the correct term! 6/1/2016
    3 - added the supplementary information. 13/4/2016
    4 - revised the "skidding" term, since the in-game data of Mario Kart 7 revealed that it's actually a new form of autodrifting. 18/12/2017
     
    Last edited: Dec 18, 2017

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